My outreach as an academic follows the contours of my teaching and scholarship. As a teacher I encourage my students to think about the link between the past and the present; as a scholar I act on that assertion. Beyond formal academic discourse, I strive to create community dialogues that inform our understanding of urban issues.


Tuskegee Universe

The idea of a Black Social World grows from the spatial relations that are evident when you examine the black communities that developed after Reconstruction in the South. In particular, I've been intrigued by the close connection between black communities connected to Booker T. Washington. In Cities Imagined, we presented a set of documents that highlight the creation of community and economic empowerment linked to Booker T. Washington.  Prior to the project's publication, I created a visual primer for students using the Negro Year Book (NYB) from 1916 to map some information on black communities. Educating a wider black public about the state of blackness on a global scale was a goal for NYB. Led by Monroe Work, the founding director of Department of Records and Research at the Tuskegee Institute, the assessment of the black experience in the NYB was a vital wellspring of information for black Americans and the only source of consistent information on subjects like lynching and economic development of African Americans. The Washington approach to separation and cooperation in the early 20th century offered a vision of empowerment to many rural black Americans.   What my examination Hannibal Square and Eatonville make clear to me is a vision of black citizenship shaped by a context of black property owners choosing paths of separation or collaborative partnership are important to take into account. On the one hand, Hannibal Square represents African American and white political partnership. The alignment of interest along economic and political lines shaped 1880 and 1890s Hannibal Square. However, the ultimate decline of that cooperation in the face of anti-black violence and political disenfranchisement stands in sharp contrast to Eatonville.  The decision to create a municipality controlled by blacks meant Eatonville could remain autonomous in the face of white racism. Within their boundary, they could shape policy that supported the community. While elements of white paternalism and racism exist in the history of both communities, the outcomes must be understood in the context of black people aware of their surroundings and making pragmatic decisions to strive and survive. The Tuskegee Universe provided resources to help black communities make these determination. It was not the only factor, but it is clearly a factor. As I explore contemporary debates about gentrification in black spaces, the legacy of property and agency remains important to current residents.


Mapping Rosenwald

During Spring 2016 semester undergraduate students in my African-American History Since 1877 course worked with the Fisk University database for Julius Rosenwald Fund. Rosenwald funded countless school across the south and this critical making project allowed us to explore the intersection of African-American and education history in Florida. Each student worked to create a short narrative for about 10 to 15 schools. Part of that work was to identify the location of the schools in the database. In pursuing this goal students were able to learn more about obstacles facing African Americans around education, how Florida's experience could be contextualized in the post-Reconstruction South and some effects of the Rosenwald schools on the black communities in the state.  Working with google fusion tables instead of My Maps allowed for us to focus on collecting information. This was no easy task and part of the struggle for the students was uncertainty linked to this kind of historical research. I set parameters for their work, but part of my logic was to pursue a sandbox approach. My goal is to return to the map and refine the archival sources used and enhance the narratives linked to community and locations. This was a community engagement course, so the project learning outcome goals was focused on critical thinking, knowledge integration and civic engagement. 

BLACK spatial imaginary: TOWNS IN THE Negro year book, 1916-1917

Mapping the contours of the knowledge universe linked to the Tuskegee University is one way to understand the Black Social World in the United States after Reconstruction. How did African American see black spaces in the post-Reconstruction world. Examining the Negro Year Book is a great way to understand that landscape.


During the Spring 2017 semester, I worked with students on "Archive Stories" rooted in a black diaspora approach. The ultimate outcome was Perspective Journal, a thematic primary source reader created by students based on their analysis of archival sources. One "primer" excercise  involved reading excepts from Negro Year Book from 1932.  The goal was emphasize black awareness of diaspora as a central part of black freedom struggle.


Hannibal Square

I work to fuse community engagement with my approach to teaching in the classroom.  As a teacher/scholar, I balance the learning experience of my students with engagement in the community. My efforts are guided by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching's definition of community engagement as a “partnership” between educational institutions and the public “to enrich scholarship, research, and creative activity; enhance curriculum, teaching and learning; prepare educated, engaged citizens; strengthen democratic values and civic responsibility; address critical societal issues; and contribute to the public good.”  With this in mind, I create generative digital history project that examine community history in Hannibal Square, the historic African American District in Winter Park, Florida. While the focus remains consistent, my project based approach uses assignments designed to align course content and learning outcomes to engage the community.  The project history below document this engagement. Use the links to learn more about each project.

Urban Bulletin Audio Documentary Project exploring the Hannibal Square Community Land Trust: Defining the C in CLT , Alternative Sources: The Community Land Trust, and Compare and Contrast Housing in Winter Park.

Advocate Recovered: A Digital Recovery Project.

The Hannibal Square Reporter (Applied History project with Kenneth Cox '16): A Historical Simulation exploring the detachment of Hannibal Square from the town of Winter Park in the 1890s.

Digital Flashback 1890s: A digital simulation using roleplaying to re-create political discourse in 1893.

The Gentrification of Hannibal Square (A digital companion project from HON 302 Research Methods):  In this digital companion project the student researcher effectively uses Google maps to create an interactive overview of how city ordinances shifted the character of the Hannibal Square community.

Block by Block was designed to explore the history of property in Hannibal Square, the historic African American community in Winter Park, Florida. The origin of this project grew from a recurring community complaint that the character of the Hannibal Square community is lost in contemporary debates about gentrification. Engaging with institutional records, the timelines produced in this course served as digital companion projects to essays written by students in the course. Weaving together archival documents and genealogical records along with applicable secondary sources, students in this course explored Hannibal Square from the 1890s to 1980s through property. The timelines offered students a chance to reflect on social, political, and economic circumstances linked to black owned property in Hannibal Square.  The student timelines created in this class are viewable online at the Block By Block website. 

Documenting the Black Social World: A Panel Discussion at hannibal Square Heritage Center

In 2013 I worked with the Samuel Proctor Oral History Program (SPOHP) at the University of Central Florida to conduct a series of oral history in Hannibal Square. These conversations were part of a larger effort to document the black experience in Central Florida. This panel conducted by Marna Weston from SPOHP featured community leaders from Hannibal Square and Eatonville.



As teacher-scholar I have developed research and pedagogy rooted in the diverse perspectives brought to light through a synergy between scholarly narrative and community engagement. Exploring Eatonville and its placement within a broader black experience have become defining parts of my interdisciplinary practice.

Project Mosaic: Zora Neale Hurston

Using the work of Zora Neale Hurston as a central theme, Project Mosaic infuses African-American subject matter into a wide array of academic disciplines from art and education to anthropology and history. In so doing, the project links a local minority subject to the wider socio-cultural experience, enhances awareness of Africa and African-American culture, and stimulates learning within the context of a liberal arts education.

Every Tongue Got to Confess Podcast

ETGC is hosted by Julian Chambliss (Michigan State University) and Robert Cassanello (University of Central Florida). In the same spirit as Zora Neale Hurston - famous African American novelist, short story writer, folklorist, and anthropologist - this podcast explores the experiences and stories of communities of color. All podcasts are brought to you by The Association to Preserve the Eatonville Community (the official sponsor of the Zora Neale Hurston Festival of the Arts and Humanities) as well the Department of History at Rollins College and its Africa and African American Studies Program.


Opening Plenary of the 2017 Communities Conference at Rollins College


A photo archive documenting the Communities Conference co-sponsored by Rollins College and The Association to Preserve Eatonville Community.



2017 Black Social World Faculty Immersion

2018 communities conference at Rollins College